Categories
Pillar of Islam

Salat

How is Salat performed?

May Allah grant blessing and peace to Prophet Muhammad, his family, his companions, and those who came after them. Peace be upon those who seek the Truth.

Assalam o Alaikum rahamutullahi wa barakuthu.

This article is about Salat, the 2nd pillar of Islam. It is compulsory for all Muslims who have reached the age of puberty, and are not insane. It is necessary to know the correct method of Salat. Salat is communication with Creator, which is the greatest moment, it has spiritual benefits. To miss salat intentionally is a major sin, and one should be careful of this.

Share the knowledge.

We should know that the purpose of this life is to worship Allah alone, not eating and drinking, staying in the house, staring at a TV screen, displaying football matches, getting married and having children, etc.

We must be prepared for the Day of Judgment.

And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.”

(Surah Adh-Dhariyat 56)

Salat in the Quran:

Allah tells us that He ordered salat.

And establish prayer and give zakah and bow with those who bow [in worship and obedience].

And Allah had already taken a covenant from the Children of Israel, and We delegated from among them twelve leaders. And Allah said, “I am with you. If you establish prayer and give zakah and believe in My messengers and support them and loan Allah a goodly loan, I will surely remove from you your misdeeds and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow. But whoever of you disbelieves after that has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.”

Al-Ma’idah 5:12

The Quran gives warning regarding missing prayers.

About the criminals,”

[And asking them], “What put you into Saqar?”

They will say, “We were not of those who prayed,

From hadith.

That Abu Sufyan said:

“I heard Jabir say: “I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say: “Between a man and shirk and kufr there stands his giving up the Salat.’”

(Sahih Muslim 82)

However, we should not make takfir. (calling a Muslim kafir) as that is very dangerous, instead we should encourage them to perform Salat, without forcing them.

From the above texts, there is no excuse to miss salat, whether during work or feeling lazy.

The best deed is praying salat on its fixed time.

“Narrated Ibn Masud: A man asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) “What deeds are the best?” The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “To perform the Salat (prayers) at their early stated fixed times, to be good and dutiful to one’s own parents, and to participate in Jihad in Allah’s Causes.”

(Sahih Bukhari 7534)

There are five daily prayers and they have their fixed times which are mentioned below. Previously it was 50, till Allah changed it to 5, as reported in the hadith of Isra and Miraj. This is a mercy from Allah, the Most Merciful. He has made the religion easy for us to practice…

Allah tells us that prayers are at fixed specific times.

Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of specified times.”
(Surah Nisa 103)

Below are:

1. Fajr (starts at beginning of pre-dawn, until sunrises)

2. Dhuhr (after the zenith has finished until one’s shadow is equal in length to his height)

3. Asr also known as Middle Prayer (when one’s shadow is equal in length to his height, until the sun turns yellow)

4. Maghrib (when the sunset starts, until twilight / red afterglow has faded)

5. Isha (When the time of Maghrib has finished, until midnight)

These times are mentioned in Sahih Muslim 612

Condition of Salat:

1. Being sane Muslim, having reached the age of puberty.

2. Intention (in the heart not verbal), should be done with pleasing Allah, not showing off.

3. The specific time of prayer must start.

4. Being in a state of wudu, (in state of junub (sexual impurity), one should take ghusl).

5. Facing Qibla (Direction facing Kaaba).

6. Praying in a clean place.

7. Covering awrah (private parts, from navel to knees, women are ordered to cover their whole body except face and hands, there are differences of opinions about covering feet).

8. Body free from any impurity such as menstrual blood, urine.

9. Must be submitted to Allah, the One and Only worthy of worship, and not else, to do so is shirk.

The pillar of Salat:

1. Standing if one able to do so,

2. Saying opening takbeer (Allah Akbar)

3. Reciting Surah Fateha

4. Bowing

5. Rising up from bowing

6. Standing straight

7. Prostration (foreheads, nose, palms, knees, and toes must be placed firmly.)

8. Rising up from prostration

9. Sitting between two prostrations

10. Being ease in each of the pillars

11. The final tashahhud

12. Sitting to recite final tashahudd and two salaams

13. Two salams (Assalam alaikum wa rahamutullahi)

14. Performing these orders above, without missing intentionally, otherwise, it is invalid.

Are the men and women prayers the same?

It is an issue of disputes, but the most authentic is that they are the same. Because Prophet peace be upon him said “Pray as you have seen me”,

Yet he did not say anything about women’s prayer.

(Sahih Bukhari 631)

Following the Imam:

You must follow the imam, without differing with him, but when he moves from the part to other, etc going to ruku from standing, do not race him, wait until he has reached the part completely. This is a common mistake, unfortunately.

Steps of Salat:

1. Make the intention that you are going to perform prayer for Allah’s pleasure and not showing off. Make your intention in your heart, not through the tongue.

Narrated ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab:

I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying, “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for.”

(Bukhari 1)

2. You should stand, if you are able to do so, keep your feet moderate, not too close, not too far away

وَقُومُواْ لِلَّهِ قَٰنِتِينَ

And stand before Allah, devoutly obedient

(Surah Baqarah Verse 238)

Narrated `Imran bin Husain:

had piles, so I asked the Prophet (ﷺ) about the prayer. He said, “Pray while standing and if you can’t, pray while sitting and if you cannot do even that, then pray Lying on your side.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari 1117)

Salat Standing straight
Salat

A picture showing feet in moderate position, not too far nor too close.
3. You should begin by saying Takbir (Allah Akbar), raising your hands with your palm up to shoulder level and fingers to ears level.
Salat

Raising the hands with palm to shoulder level, and fingers to ear level
There are 3 ways of raising hands:

1. Before saying Takbir.

When the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) stood up for prayer, he raised hands (to the height) apposite the shoulders and then recited takbir.

(Sahih Muslim 390 c)

2. During it.

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to raise both his hands up to the level of his shoulders when opening the prayer; and on saying the Takbir for bowing.

(Sahih al-Bukhari 735)

3. After it.

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) raised his hands apposite his ears at the time of reciting the takbir (i. e. at the time of beginning the prayer)

(Sahih Muslim 391 b)

4. Place your right hand over your left hand on the chest area.

The people were ordered to place the right hand on the left forearm in the prayer. Abu Hazim said, “I knew that the order was from the Prophet (ﷺ) .”

(Sahih al-Bukhari 740)

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to place his right hand on his left hand, then he folded them strictly on his chest in prayer.

(Sunan Abi Dawud 759)

There are two ways of placing the hands.

1. Placing right hand over the left.

He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand.

(Sahih Muslim 401)

Salat 

Placing right hand over the left.

Or

2. Grabbing wrist.

“I said: ‘I am going to watch how the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) prays.’ So I watched him and he stood and said the takbir, and raised his hands until they were in the level with his ears, then he placed his right hand over his left hand, wrist and lower forearm.

(Sunan Nasai 889)

How to perform salat.

It is best to follow stick to both of them, as to follow the maximum sunnah. But if you want to stick to one sunnah, that’s also OK.

5. Keep your gaze fixed on the place of prostration. Always have khushoo

Khushoo is spiritual concentration, this means that the Muslim who prays, ignores all thoughts except Allah, and his heart focuses on Him only, out of humbleness. Without khushoo, then we are only praying like robots.

Allah says

قَدۡ أَفۡلَحَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ

Certainly will the believers have succeeded

ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ فِى صَلَاتِهِمۡ خَٰشِعُونَ

They who are during their prayer humbly submissive

(Surah Al-Mu’minun 1-2)

6. It is sunnah to recite opening dua and seeking refuge with Allah from Shaitan the outcast.

Glorious You are O Allah, and with Your praise, and blessed is Your Name, and exalted is Your majesty, and none has the right to be worshiped but You.”


(Tirmidhi 243)

Or

O Allah, distance me from my sins just as You have distanced the east from the west. O Allah cleanse me of my sins as a white garment is cleansed of filth. O Allah, wash my sins from me with snow, water, and hail.”
(Bukhari 1/181, Muslim 598 a-b and Ibn Majah)

And then seeking refuge with Allah from Shaitan the outcast.

I seek refuge with Allah from Shaitan the accursed.”

فَإِذَا قَرَأۡتَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ فَٱسۡتَعِذۡ بِٱللَّهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ

So when you recite the Qur’an, [first] seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the expelled [from His mercy].

(Surah An-Nahl 98)

7. You must recite Surah Fateha, even behind the imam (this must be done in each rakats)

(Tirmidhi 311)

Note: It is makruh to recite Quran too quickly. One should recite it slowly and reflect on its meaning. It is recommended to pause at each verse for short time.

Note: You must keep moving your tongue and lips while reciting the Quran

You should read tafsir, as to increase your knowledge and understanding of the Quran. Learning Arabic is one of the most important aspects for those who are not native speakers, as it is the language of the Quran.

8. It is recommended to recite a Surah after Fateha, Surah Ikhlas is sufficient, and it is reported in a hadith that it is equal to a third of the Qur’an.

Abu Darda’ reported Allah’s Apostle (ﷺ) as saying:Is any one of you incapable of reciting a third of the Qur’an in a night? They (the Companions) asked: How could one recite a third of the Qur’an (in a night)? Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said: “‘Say: He is Allah, One’ (Qur’an. cxii) is equivalent to a third of the Qur’an.”

(Sahih Muslim 811a)

9. Raise your hand, before bowing down, keep your back and head straight.

My father said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to raise both his hands up to the level of his shoulders when opening the prayer; and on saying the Takbir for bowing. And on raising his head from bowing he used to do the same and then say “Sami`a l-lahu liman hamidah, Rabbana wa laka l-hamd.” And he did not do that (i.e. raising his hands) in prostrations.

(Sahih Bukhari 735)

10.You must recite Subhan Rabbiyal al-Azeem, once is a minimum, three times is recommended.

In his bowing, he would say: “Subhana Rabbil-Azim” (Glory be to my Lord Almighty)

(Sunan Nasai 1008)

In Arabic form:

“Glory be to my Lord Almighty.

11. While rising up from bowing and before going to standing straight positon, say Sami Allah liman hamidah. If you are praying alone. You also raise hands as well, both alone and in congregational.

If the imam is leading. Say Rabbana wa-laka-hamd or Allahumma Rabbana wa-laka-hamd, after the imam has said “Sami Allah liman hamidah” and reached the standing straight position from bowing.

My father said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) used to raise both his hands up to the level of his shoulders when opening the prayer; and on saying the Takbir for bowing. And on raising his head from bowing he used to do the same and then say “Sami`a l-lahu liman hamidah, Rabbana wa laka l-hamd.” And he did not do that (i.e. raising his hands) in prostrations.

(Sahih Bukhari 735, – Sahih Bukhari 733)

(the word, Allahumma added is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari 796)

In Arabic form:

Allah hears the one who praises Him

Our Lord, praise be to You.

Or

Oh Allah, our Lord, praise be to You.

12. Then put your hands on your chest, the same manner, but you may drop your hands to the sides, there are differences of opinions about placing hands. If you are praying alone, say either Rabbana wa-laka-hamd or Allahumma, Rabbana wa-laka-hamd after standing straight

“When the Prophet (ﷺ) raised his head from bowing, he said: ‘Allahumma Rabbana wa lakal-hamd (O Allah, our Lord and to You be the praise).'”

(Sunan Nasai 1060)

13. You do not raise your hands. Prostrate before Allah, the Supreme Lord, with all required parts put firmly (forehead, nose, palms, knees and toes) Keep your arms away from your body and keep it wide so the armpit can be seen. Do not rest your forearms on ground. Your hands should be next to your shoulders or ears.

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said. When you prostrate yourself, place the palms of your hands on the ground and raise your elbows.

(Sahih Muslim 494)

When the Prophet (ﷺ) prostrated, lie spread out his arms so that the whiteness of his armpits was visible.

(Sahih Muslim 495a)

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Be straight in the prostrations and none of you should put his forearms on the ground (in the prostration) like a dog.”

(Sahih Bukhari 822)

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: I was commanded to prostrate myself on the seven (bones) and forbidden to fold back hair and clothing. (The seven bones are): forehead, nose, hands, knees and feet.

(Sahih Muslim 490e)

performing salat: Prostrate before the Almighty Allah. Place your forehead, nose, palms, knees and toes on ground firmly. Do not lift any of them.
performing salat: keep your feet touching each other, with both of parts, top and toes.
14. Recite Subhan Rabbi al ala, 1 is minimum while 3 is recommended.

In his prostration, he (Prophet peace be upon him) would say: ‘Subhan Rabbil-A’la (Glory be to my Lord the Highest).'”

(Sunan Nasai 1008)

In Arabic form:

Glory be to my Lord is, the Highest.

15. You can make any duas while in Sajdah, as much as you wish. You can recite it in your own language.

As for bowing, glorify the Lord therein, and as for prostration, strive hard in supplication for it is more deserving of a response.'”

(Sunan Nasai 1045)

16. Rise up for sitting between two prostrations, saying Takbir. Sit on your left foot, while your right foot should be erect.

On sitting In the second rak`a he (Prophet peace be upon him) sat on his left foot and propped up the right one

(Sahih Bukhari 828)

17. While sitting between two prostrations, recite Rabbigfir li. Once is minimum, you can recite it as many as you like.

And between the two prostrations, he would say: “Rabbighfirli, Rabbighfirli (Lord forgive me, Lord forgive me).”

(Sunan Nasai 1145)

In Arabic form:

18. Prostrate again, saying Takbir. Say the same dihkr as mentioned above, you can also make duas.
19. It it is sunnah to sit while after rising from second prostration before standing up, then say Allah Akbar for standing up.

(Sahih Bukhari 824)

You also raise your hands after you have completed 1st tashahudd

Nafi’ said on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that when he began prayer, he uttered the takbir( Allah is most great) and raised his hands; and when he bowed( he raised his hands); and when he said:

“Allah listens to him who praises Him,” (he raised his hands); and when he stood up at the end of two rak’ahs, he raised his hands. He (Ibn ‘Umar) traced that back to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).

(Abu Dawood 741)

20. Now you have finished one Rakat. You do the same for each rakats until the end, in 2nd Rakat, you will not stand up like the previous Rakat but instead, sit for tashahudd. This is the same as in prayers with more than 2 rakats, which has two tashahudd. (Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha).
21. As soon as you sit for tashahudd, raise your index finger. There are two ways. You also sit on your left foot and with your right feet erect.
performing salat: there are two ways of raising finger, making circle with middle finger and thumb then raise your index finger, or making fist and raising your index finger

1. Make a circle with middle finger and thumb, then raise your index finger.

He (Prophet peace be upon him) put the edge of his right elbow on his right thigh, then he held two of his fingers together and made a circle, and raised his forefinger, and I saw him moving it and supplicating with it.”

(Sunan Nasai 889)

2. Make fist and raise your index finger.

Do as the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to do. I said: How did Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) do? He said that he (the Messenger of Allah) sat at tashahhud, placed his right palm on the right thigh and closed all his fingers and pointed with the help of finger next to the thumb, and placed his left palm on his left thigh.

(Sahih Muslim 580c)

Salat: Making fist and raising the index finger
22. It is sunnah to slightly move your finger and fix your gaze upon it. You do this til you finish reciting the At-Tahiyyaat

I saw him (Prophet peace be upon him) moving it and supplicating with it.”

(Sunan Nasai 890)

He kept his look fixed on the finger he was pointing.

(Abu Dawood 990)

There are many different versions of At-Tahiyyaat recited by Companions of Prophet peace be upon him, from different ahadith. I will put the at-tahiyyaat of Ibn Masud, a companion of Prophet peace be upon him.

(Ibn Nasai 1169, and Muslim 402).


All praises, prayers, and good things are for Allah,

Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you, O Prophet!

Peace be upon us and the righteous slaves of Allah,

I testify that none has to be worshipped but Allah, and I also testify that Muhammad is Allah’s slave and Messenger.”

23. In final Rakat (2nd tashahudd) There is a sunnah sitting position, called Tawarruk. It is done by sitting on your left buttock and putting your left foot underneath your right leg.

and in the last rak`a he pushed his left foot forward and kept the other foot propped up and sat over the buttocks.

(Sahih Bukhari 828)

Salat: It is sunnah when sitting for 2nd Tashahudd which is final, to sit on your left buttock with your left feet under your right leg, with the right feet still erect.
24. After reciting the second At-Tahhiyaat, you should recite durood Ibrahim. You also do the same sunnah, raising your index finger, with either way mentioned above, fixing your gaze on it and slightly moving it, until the end.


“O Allah, send blessing to Muhammad and family of Muhammad, as You have sent blessing to Ibrahim and family of Ibrahim, truly You are Praiseworthy and Glorious, O Allah bless Muhammad and family of Muhammad, as You have blessed Ibrahim and family of Ibrahim, truly You are Praiseworthy and Glorious.”

(Sahih Bukhari 3370)

25. It is recommended to seek refuge with Allah from four things.

The Messenger of Allah (way peace be upon him) said: When any one of you utters tashahhud (in prayer) he must seek refuge with Allah from four (trials) and should thus say:” O Allah! I seek refuge with Thee from the torment of the Hell, from the torment of the grave, from the trial of life and death and from the evil of the trial of Masih al-Dajjal” (Antichrist).

(Sahih Muslim 588a)

Oh, Allah! I seek refuge with You from the torment of the Hell, from the torment of the grave, from the trial of life and death, and from the evil of Mashih al-Dajjal.”

26. It is recommended to supplicate anything whatever you like, before saying the tasleem (two salaams). You can include duas from the Quran and Sunnah, as that is better.

While observing prayer behind the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) we used to recite: Peace be upon Allah, peace be upon so and so. One day the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to us: Verily Allah is Himself Peace. When any one of you sits during the prayer, he should say: All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s upright servants, for when he says this it reaches every upright servant in the heavens and the earth. (And say further): I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Then he may choose any supplication which pleases him and offer it.

(Sahih Muslim 402)

27. Say Assalam Alaikum rahamtullahi, turning your face to right then left. You should let your cheek be seen by people behind you.

the Prophet, said: “The key to Salat is the purification, its Tahrlm is the Takblr, and its Tahlil is the Taslim.”

(Tirmidhi 3),

I saw the Messenger of Allah (may peace be open him) pronouncing taslim on his right and on his left till I saw the whiteness of his cheek.

(Sahih Muslim 582)

Salat Turning face right
Salat Turning face to left side.
Twelve Sunnah salat:

Zuhr: 4 (2+2) rakats sunnah salat before fard (obligatory), two after it. There is a hadith about praying 4, that whoever performs it, Allah will forbid him Fire, You can do 2+2 rakats, two rakats sunnah and then another two rakats, making it 4.

Asr is not included in Twelve sunnah salat. But, it is reported in Tirmidhi 430 that Allah will have mercy on those who pray 4 before Asr.

Maghrib: Two Sunnah rakat after farz.

Isha: Two Sunnah rakat after farz.

Fajr: Two Sunnah rakat before farz, this prayer is highly recommended and should be never missed even when in traveling, but it is not obligatory.

A house will be built for one who performs the Twelve sunnah salat.

“Whoever is regular with twelve Rak’ah of Sunnah (prayer), Allah will build a house for him in Paradise: Four Rak’ah before Zuhr, two Rak’ah after it, two Rak’ah after Maghrib, two Rak’ah after Isha, and two Rak’ah before Fajr.”

(Tirmidhi 414)

Although Salah is basic part of Islam, unfortunately most of people do not follow the correct method actually. Kindly see this article please.

Alhamduilliah (praise be to Allah)


Home

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *