Special Prayers (Eid, Janazah, Witr)

Special Prayers


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Eid prayers

Before Eid prayers, it is important that one should try to follow these sunnah and mustahabb acts.

Taking Ghusl

It is recommended for Muslims to perform ghusl for the Eid prayers.

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to do ghusl on the day of Fitr before going to the place of prayer.

Imam Malik Muwetta (Chapter of Eids)

Wearing best clothing and applying perfume (Only for men)

It is a noble manner to wear the best clothing and as well as adorning oneself with perfume. This is only for men, as about the women, they should not do that, especially when coming out for Eid prayer, as this can lead to fitnah.

Eating odd numbers of dates in Fitr before going for the prayer, and not eating in Adha until the prayer is performed.

In Fitr day, it is sunnah to eat odd numbers of dates before going for prayer, and in Adha, it is sunnah to not eat until one has performed the prayer. This is reported in hadith.

Abdullah bin Buraidah narrated from his father:

“The Prophet would not leave on the Day of Fitr until he ate, and he would not eat on the day of Adha until he prayed.”

Jami` at-Tirmidhi 542

Saying Takbeer when one leaves the house until the imam comes.

It is greatest sunnah, as Allah mentions in the Quran

(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Greatest)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him

Surah Baqarah 185

The Salaf used to recite the Tabkeer after leaving their houses to the prayer areas until the Imam came. As for the Eid ul Adha, the scholars said the takbeer starts in first day of Dhul-Hijjah until sunset on last day of Tashraaq

The takbeer are:

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd

or

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, wa Lillaahi’l-hamd

Now about the Eid prayers.

How to perform Eid prayers

The eid prayer is similar to that of normal prayer, but there are few parts included.

Starting the prayer with the Opening Takbeer

The eid prayer should be opened as that of normal prayer, with Opening Takbeer (Allah Akbar)

Mulitpies Takbeers will be recited, before reciting the Quran in both rakats.

The Takbeer in first rakat is to be recited 7 times, while in 2nd rakat it is 5 times. as reported in ahadith:

‘Abdur-Rahman bin Sa’d bin ‘Ammar bin Sa’d, the Mu’adhdhin of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), narrated from his father, from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to say the Takbir in the ‘Eid prayer, seven times in the first (Rak’ah) before reciting Qur’an, and five times in the second before reciting Qur’an.

Ibn Majah 1277

The hands will be raised for each takbeer.

After the Takbeer is recited, the surah fatiha should be recited, as it is still pillar of the prayer. then recite these sunnah surah.

It is sunnah to recite these surahs according to Prophet peace be upon him.

An-Nu’man bin Bashir narrated:

“For the two Eid and the Friday prayer, the Prophet (peace be upon him) would recite: Glorify the Name of Your Lord, the Most High, and Has there come to you the narration of the overwhelming?”

Tirmidhi 533

These are Surah Al-A’la and Surah Al-Ghashiyah. In book, Imam Tirmidhi, also mentioned from this hadith that the Prophet peace be upon him used to recite Surah Qaf and Al-Qamar. Other hadith about it.

It was narrated that ‘Ubaidullah bin ‘Abdullah said:“Umar went out on the day of ‘Eid and sent word to Abu Waqid Al-Laithi asking what the Prophet (ﷺ) used to recite on this day. He said: ‘Qaf [Qaf (50)] and ‘Iqtarabat’.” [Al-Qamar (54)]

Ibn Majah 1282

The rest of the prayer will be then performed as the normal prayer would be performed.

Is Eid prayer obligatory?

The scholars have different opinions regarding it including the Four Imams.

Imam Shafi (may Allah have mercy on him) and Imam Malik (May Allah have mercy on him) are of the view that Eid prayer is confirmed Sunnah (Sunnah Mu’akkadah).

Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) was of the view that the Eid prayer is communal obligation, Imam Abu Hanifah (may Allah have mercy on him) said that Eid prayer is duty of the Muslims and obligatory for men.

The more correct view is that it is obligatory for men to come to Eid prayers, unless given valid excuses. It is not obligatory for the women to perform Eid prayer, but it is sunnah. as reported in the hadith.

Umm ‘Atiyya reported:

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) commanded us to bring out on’Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha young women, menstruating women and screened away ladies, menstruating women kept back from prayer, but participated in goodness and supplication of the Muslims. I said: Messenger of Allah, one of us does not have an outer garment (to cover her face and body). He said: Let her sister cover her with her outer garment.

Sahih Muslim 890 c

Witr prayers

Witr is great sunnah prayers which should never be skipped, it is mustahhab to perform it at end of the night, if one feels that he can able to wake up for that. But if he fears he may not wake up, then witr can be performed after Isha before sleeping. If one suddenly wakes up at Tahajjud time after he has performed witr, then witr is not to be performed in that case.

The mininum number of Witr is one rakat according to Muslim 752a. But 3 rakats is better.

There are two ways of performing Witr prayers.

  1. Performing Witr without sitting for 1st tashahhudd unlike in Maghrib. Instead one gets up for 3rd rakats. The Tashahudd will be only in 3rd rakat.
  2. Performing two rakats with 1 rakat seperated. This is done by finishing the 2nd rakats with Tashahhud and then salam, then get up and perform for 1st rakat.

These are mentioned from the ahadith

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used not to say the tasleem in the (first) two rakahs of Witr. According to another version: “He used to pray Witr with three rak’ahs and he did not sit except in the last of them.”

Narrated by al-Nasaa’i, 3/234; al-Bayhaqi, 3/31. al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’ (4/7): it was narrated by al-Nasaa’i with a hasan isnaad, and by al-Bayhaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him), used to separate the two rak’ahs from the single rak’ah with a tasleem, and he said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to do that.

Narrated by Ibn Hibbaan (2435); Ibn Hajar said in al-Fath (2/482): its isnaad is qawiy (strong).

Witr prayers with more than 3 rakat

If one wishes to perform witr with more than 3 rakats, like 5 or 7 rakats, then the prayer must be in continous and the tashahhud and salam will be in the last rakat instead.

‘A’isha reported:

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to observe thirteen rak’ahs of the night prayer. Five out of them consisted of Witr, and he did not sit, but at the end (for salutation).

Sahih Muslim 737 a

If it is 9 rakat, it should be also continuous, and one should sit in the 8th rakat for Tashahhud, without saying salam, then recite tashahud and say salam in the 9th rakat. If he wants to perform 11 rakat, then, he should end the 9th rakat with tasleem first, then perform two rakat.

Mother of the Faithful (Hazrat Aisha), inform me about the Witr of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). She said: I used to prepare tooth stick for him and water for his ablution, and Allah would rouse him to the extent He wished during the night. He would use the tooth stick, and perform ablution, and would offer nine rak’ahs, and would not sit but in the eighth one and would remember Allah, and praise Him and supplicate Him, then he would get up without uttering the salutation and pray the ninth rak’ah. He would then sit, remember, praise Him and supplicate Him and then utter a salutation loud enough for us to hear. He would then pray two rak’ahs sitting after uttering the salutation, and that made eleven rak’ahs.

Sahih Muslim 746 a

It is sunnah to recite these surah, in different rakat.

Surah al-A’la in first rakat

Surah Kafiroon in second rakat

Surah Ikhlas in third rakat

Sa’eed bin ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abza narrated from his father, that:Ubayy bin Ka’b said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to recite in Witr: “Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High;” and “Say: O you disbelievers!;’ and ‘Say: He is Allah, (the) One.’ And when he said the salam, he would say: Subhanal-Malikil-Quddus (Glory be to the Sovereign, the Most Holy) three times.”

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1729

It is also sunnah to recite Subhanal-Malikil-Quddus after the saluation as mentioned in this hadith.

Qunoot

Qunoot is dua recited after bowing in last rakat of witr. but during it before bowing, is fine.

It can be also said in obligatory prayers after standing up from ruku in the last rakat, when one faces calamity. But the qunoot should be made with what is appropriate for the calamity not the actual dua of qunoot.

During the Qunoot, the worshipper should raise his hands to chest height,

The duas which Prophet peace be upon him taught hazrat Hussain bin Ali, is:

Allahumma ihdini fiman hadayta wa ‘afini fiman afayta wa tawallani fiman tawallayta wa barik li fima a’tayta, wa qini sharra ma qadayta, fa innaka taqdi wa la yuqda ‘alayk, wa innahu la yadhilluman walayta, tabarakta Rabbana wa at’alayt

Translation:

O Allah, guide me among those whom You have guided, pardon me among those You have pardoned, turn to me in friendship among those on whom You have turned in friendship, and bless me in what You have bestowed, and save me from the evil of what You have decreed. For verily You decree and none can influence You; and he is not humiliated whom You have befriended. Blessed are You, O Lord, and Exalted.

Arabic:

اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنِي فِيمَنْ هَدَيْتَ وَعَافِنِي فِيمَنْ عَافَيْتَ وَتَوَلَّنِي فِيمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ وَبَارِكْ لِي فِيمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَقِنِي شَرَّ مَا قَضَيْتَ إِنَّكَ تَقْضِي وَلاَ يُقْضَى عَلَيْكَ وَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَتَعَالَيْتَ

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1745

Another version, Hazrat Ali reported:

Allahumma inni a’udhu biridaka min sakhatika, wa a’udhu bimu’afatika min ‘uqubatika, wa a’udhu bika minka, la uhsi thana’an ‘alaika, Anta kama athnaita ‘ala nafsika

Translation:

O Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your wrath, and I seek refuge in Your forgiveness from your punishment, and I seek refuge in You from You. I cannot enumerate Your praise, You are as You have praised Yourself

Arabic:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِرِضَاكَ مِنْ سُخْطِكَ وَأَعُوذُ بِمُعَافَاتِكَ مِنْ عُقُوبَتِكَ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْكَ لاَ أُحْصِي ثَنَاءً عَلَيْكَ أَنْتَ كَمَا أَثْنَيْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ

Ibn Majah 1179

Then the blessing should be sent upon Prophet peace be upon him at the end of the Qunoot.

Janaza

Janaza prayer is funeral prayer that is performed, when one has passed away. It is prescibed, and highly recommended act.

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “(A believer) who accompanies the funeral procession of a Muslim out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allah’s reward and remains with it till the funeral prayer is offered and the burial ceremonies are over, he will return with a reward of two Qirats. Each Qirat is like the size of the (Mount) Uhud. He who offers the funeral prayer only and returns before the burial, will return with the reward of one Qirat only.”

Sahih al-Bukhari 47

Janaza is Fard Kifayah, which means that it is obligatory if no one performs the prayer, and the community is sinful, if they do not perform it. But if few Muslims performs it, then it’s not obligatory, but it is still better to perform.

There is no bowing and prostration, only the standing form.

How to perform Janaza

Start the prayer with Opening Tabkeer

There are 4 takbeers in the prayer.

First Takbeer will then be recited to start the prayer, like in normal prayer.

Seek refuge with Allah from shaitan the ascursed, and recite Surah Fatiha.

Surah Fatiha will be recited after the seeking refuge with Allah, then it will be followed by some surah or small ayats.

Recite second Takbeer, and then recite Durood-e-Ibrahim as recited at end of the normal prayer.

The second Takbeer will then be recited, and the Durood will be recited.

Then recite third Takbeer, and make dua for the deceased Muslim.

The dua is:

Allahummaghfir lihayyina wa mayyitina, wa shahidina wa gha’ibina, wa saghirina wa kabirina, wa dhakarina wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyaitahu minna faahyihi ‘alal-Islam, wa man tawaffaytahu minna fa tawaffahu ‘alal- iman. Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu wa la tudillana ba’dah.

Translation:

O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those who are present and those who are absent, our young and our old, our males and our females. O Allah, whomever of us You cause to live, let him live in Islam, and whomever of us You cause to die, let him die in (a state of) faith. O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward, and do not let us go astray after him

In Arabic:

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِحَيِّنَا وَمَيِّتِنَا وَشَاهِدِنَا وَغَائِبِنَا وَصَغِيرِنَا وَكَبِيرِنَا وَذَكَرِنَا وَأُنْثَانَا اللَّهُمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَأَحْيِهِ عَلَى الإِسْلاَمِ وَمَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَتَوَفَّهُ عَلَى الإِيمَانِ اللَّهُمَّ لاَ تَحْرِمْنَا أَجْرَهُ وَلاَ تُضِلَّنَا بَعْدَهُ

Ibn Majah 1498

The final Takbeer will then be recited, and there should be small pause.

After the fourth takbeer, and the pause. The prayer will be finished with one Tasleem on right side. (saying Assalam alaikum wa rahamtullah)

Alhamdulillah

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