Animals rights in Islam

Treatment of Animals in Islam

Share the knowledge for the pleasure of Allah

Allah has created all things, mankind, jinns, angels, the heavens, and earth. He has created animals to serve mankind, such as plowing crops, riding, carrying things that are too difficult for them, this is the mercy of Allah. But we are not thankful to Him at all. Even in Muslim countries, animals are treated badly, we do not realize that they actually have their rights in Islam, and they are also witnesses against us on the Day of judgment, even an ant.

According to this website

  • Every 60 seconds, one animal suffers abuse.
  • Every year, more than 10 million animals die from abuse in the US alone.
  • About 97% of all animals that are tortured and killed every year are farm animals.

There are two types of animal abuse: passive and active cruelty.

(Animal Abuse)

Passive cruelty mostly includes cases of animal neglect like improper shelter, dehydration, starvation, and so on. On the other hand, active cruelty involves intentionally harming the animal. This includes the beating, whipping, and branding of animals, which can often result in their death.

The UK’s RSPCA gets a call about animal abuse every 27 seconds.

(The Guardian)

The number of animal cruelty cases investigated by the RSPCA rose by 5% in only one year, and now the organization gets more than 400 calls a day. Its cruelty hotline operates 24/7, and according to the animal abuse statistics from 2016, it investigated more than 150,000 reported cases in that year alone.

Circus animals spend 96% of their lives in cages.

(Sentient Media)

Most of these animals spend almost their whole lives in cages, transported from one city to another. These animals are forced into submission, whipped, chained, and denied socialization with their own species. Animal abuse in circuses is a major problem as these animals are constantly exploited and left in terrible conditions.

Islam’s view on the animals:

When it comes to Islam’s view on the treatment of animals, it is merciful toward them. Islam tells us that we should be kind to them, and not harm them except only if they are dangerous, then they are taken down.

Allah tells us that animals are Muslims like us.

Animals are Muslims:

وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا طَٰٓئِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيۡهِ إِلَّآ أُمَمٌ أَمۡثَالُكُمۚ مَّا فَرَّطۡنَا فِى ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ مِن شَىۡءٍۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ يُحۡشَرُونَ

And there is no creature on [or within] the earth or bird that flies with its wings except [that they are] communities like you. We have not neglected in the Register a thing. Then unto their Lord, they will be gathered. (Surah Al-An’am 6:38)

Imam Quturbi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

They are groups like you in that Allah the Exalted has created them, provides for them, and makes justice between them. Thus, you should not wrong them or transgress the limits that you have been commanded.

(Source: al-Jāmi’ li-Aḥkām al-Qur’ān 6:38)

Imam Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on him) wrote regarding this ayat:

Mujahid commented, “Meaning various species that have distinct names.” Qatadah said, “Birds are an Ummah, humans are an Ummah and the Jinns are an Ummah.” As-Suddi said that “but are Umam like you” means, creations (or species)

And on another part of the Tafsir, he wrote:

“but are Umam like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord, they (all) shall be gathered.”

(Ibn Kathir): “All creatures will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection, the beasts, birds, and all others. Allah’s justice will be so perfect, that the un-horned sheep will receive retribution from the horned sheep. Allah will then command them, “Be dust!” This is when the disbelievers will say,

يَٰلَيۡتَنِى كُنتُ تُرَٰبَۢا

“Woe me! Would that I were dust!”

They prostrate to Allah:

They also prostrate before their Lord. It is matter of the Unseen, so we should believe in them.

أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَسۡجُدُ لَهُۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلشَّمۡسُ وَٱلۡقَمَرُ وَٱلنُّجُومُ وَٱلۡجِبَالُ وَٱلشَّجَرُ وَٱلۡدَّوَآبُّ

Do you not see that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is in the earth and the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, the moving creatures. (Surah Hajj 22:18)

وَلِلَّهِ يَسۡجُدُ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مِن دَاۤبَّةٍ

And to Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth of creatures. (Surah 16:49)

Keeping pets:

Islam allows keeping pets, as long as one fulfills their rights, that they hold, such as being given food and water, a comfortable place, not punishing them unnecessarily nor cause pain to them such as whipping them. They should not be tortured as well.

It is reported that Hazrat Abu Hurairah (means father of a kitten) had a kitten pet:

“I said to Abu Hurairah: ‘Why were you given the Kunyah Abu Hurairah?’ He said: ‘Do you not fear me?'” He said: “Indeed, I am in awe of you.’ He said: ‘I used to tend the sheep of my people, and I had a small kitten; so I used to place it in a tree at night, and during the day I would take it and play with it. So they named me Abu Hurairah.'”

(Tirmidhi 3840)

Birds can be also kept as pets.

“I heard Anas Bin Malik say: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to mix with us so much that he said to a little brother of mine: “O Abu Umair what happened to the Nughair?”

(Ibn Majah 3720)

Dogs and wild animals cannot be kept as pets. Wild animals are more dangerous, and can even kill other people as well not just its owner.

Imam Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said in al-Majmoo‘ (9/286-287): The second category of animals is those in which there is no benefit, so it is not permissible to sell them, such as dung beetles, scorpions, and snakes. … Our companions said: that also includes wild animals that are not suitable for hunting with or fighting and cannot be eaten, such as lions, wolves, tigers, bears, and so on. Sales of such animals are not valid, because there is no benefit in them.

Dogs can be only kept as hunting or guarding dogs. Reported from ahadith:

I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying; “Angels (of Mercy) do not enter a house wherein there is a dog or a picture of a living creature (a human being or an animal)

(Sahih Bukhari 3225)

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever keeps a dog, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily unless the dog is used for guarding a farm or cattle.” Abu Huraira (in another narration) said from the Prophet, “unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting.” Narrated Abu Hazim from Abu Huraira: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting.”

Sahih al-Bukhari 2322

And Qirat means mountain it is reported:

“The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Whoever attends a funeral until the prayer is offered will have one Qirat and whoever attends until (the body) is buried will have two Qirats.”‘ It was said: “What are the two Qirats, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Like two great mountains.”

(Sunan an-Nasa’i 1995)

Some of Quran’s saying about animals

Animals are regarded as blessings from Allah:

وَٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمَ خَلَقَهَاۗ لَكُمۡ فِيهَا دِفۡءٌ وَمَنَٰفِعُ وَمِنۡهَا تَأۡكُلُونَ

And the grazing livestock He has created for you; in them is warmth and [numerous] benefits, and from them, you eat.

وَلَكُمۡ فِيهَا جَمَالٌ حِينَ تُرِيحُونَ وَحِينَ تَسۡرَحُونَ

And for you in them is [the enjoyment of] beauty when you bring them in [for the evening] and when you send them out [to pasture].

وَتَحۡمِلُ أَثۡقَالَكُمۡ إِلَىٰ بَلَدٍ لَّمۡ تَكُونُواْ بَٰلِغِيهِ إِلَّا بِشِقِّ ٱلۡأَنفُسِۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمۡ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

And they carry your loads to a land you could not have reached except with difficulty to yourselves. Indeed, your Lord is Kind and Merciful.

وَٱلۡخَيۡلَ وَٱلۡبِغَالَ وَٱلۡحَمِيرَ لِتَرۡكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةًۚ وَيَخۡلُقُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ

And [He created] the horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride and [as] adornment. And He creates that which you do not know.

Surah An-Nahl 5 to 8

Story of She-Camel of Allah:

One of the miracles that Allah sent to a nation who were called Thamud was His She-Camel, it was tall, huge, and beautiful. He sent Prophet Salih (peace be upon him) to his people. Thamud were powerful and tall people, and because of that, they were arrogant and boastful. They used to worship idols instead of Allah. When they asked Prophet Salih (peace be upon him) for a proof of his prophethood. He requested Allah to grant him a miracle. The she-camel was brought from the rock which was split. It was 10-month pregnant. Only a few believed in Salih peace be upon him. Despite the clear proof, the rich and arrogant still disbelieved in him. They wanted to kill the she-camel due to their arrogance and jealousy.

Salih feared that the people might kill the she-camel. He warned them:

وَيَٰقَوۡمِ هَٰذِهِۦ نَاقَةُ ٱللَّهِ لَكُمۡ ءَايَةً فَذَرُوهَا تَأۡكُلۡ فِىٓ أَرۡضِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا تَمَسُّوهَا بِسُوٓءٍ فَيَأۡخُذَكُمۡ عَذَابٌ قَرِيبٌ

“And O my people, this is the she-camel of Allah – [she is] to you a sign. So let her feed upon Allah’s earth and do not touch her with harm, or you will be taken by an impending punishment.” (Surah Hud 64)

According to Imam Ibn Kathir in his book “Stories of the Prophets”

The disbelievers began to complain that the She-Camel drank most of the waters and scared their cattle.

They planned the killing, by asking one of their womenfolk to tempt young men. One of the women who was from a noble and rich family named Saduq bint of Mahya, offered herself to a young man named Masrai Ibn Mahraj on condition that he hamstrung the camel. And an old woman also offered her young daughter to Qudar Ibn Saluf, on killing of the camel. These young men felt lustful about these women, so they agreed and set finding seven others to assist them.

The She-Camel came to drink from one of the wells. Masrai shot one of its legs with an arrow, the She-Camel tried to escape, but her leg was too weak. Qudar then struck its other leg, making her down. Then he pierced it.

When Prophet Salih peace be upon him saw the death of the she-camel. he said to his people:

تَمَتَّعُواْ فِى دَارِكُمۡ ثَلَٰثَةَ أَيَّامٍۖ ذَٰلِكَ وَعۡدٌ غَيۡرُ مَكۡذُوبٍ

“Enjoy yourselves in your homes for three days. That is a promise not to be denied.” (Surah Hud 65)

Allah says regarding His She-Camel, which He sent to Thamud.

وَءَاتَيۡنَا ثَمُودَ ٱلنَّاقَةَ مُبۡصِرَةً فَظَلَمُواْ بِهَاۚ

“And We gave Thamud the she-camel as a visible sign but they wronged her.” (Surah Al-Isra 59)

Therefore we should always fulfill their rights.

Animals rights:

According to one of the classical scholar of Islam, Ibn Abdi Salaam, he wrote:

The rights of creatures and animals over humanity are the following: that he provides for them as they require, even if they have aged or sickened such that no benefit comes from them;

That he not burden them beyond what they can bear;

That he not put them together with another creature that could injure it, whether of their own kind or other species, whether by breaking their bones or butting or wounding them;

That he slaughters them with gentleness and he does not flay their skins or break their bones until their bodies have become cold and passed away;

That he does not slaughter their young within their sight but rather he does so in solitude;

That he makes their resting and watering places comfortable;

That he puts the males and females together during their mating seasons;

That he does not discard what he has hunted;

And that he does not shoot them with anything that breaks their bones or harms them by any means that would render their meat forbidden to eat.

Qawāʻid al-Aḥkām fī Iṣlāḥ al-Anām 1/167

How Prophet peace be upon him viewed animals:

وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَٰكَ إِلَّا رَحۡمَةً لِّلۡعَٰلَمِينَ

And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds (Quran 21:107)

Our beloved Prophet peace be upon him had the most beautiful character which no one can able to match. He treated people with patience, kindness, gentleness, and support, the elders, children, poor, etc. Not only them, but he also treated animals, and he was vegetarian most of the time, having barely eaten meats. Foods were not his main focus, rather he only ate as to fulfill his needs, and to keep him going through his struggling journey.

He was actually a shepherd. He also said that all previous prophets were shepherds (Sahih al-Bukhari 2262, 5453). There are many benefits of being a shepherd, which why Prophet peace be upon him improved a lot from the difficult task.

Showing mercy to animals:

It is reported that Prophet peace be upon him said:

‘Someone who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy.’ (Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 95)

Abu Umama that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who shows mercy, even to an animal meant for slaughtering, will be shown mercy by Allah on the Day of Rising.”

(Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 381)

And another hadith says

Mu’awiya ibn Qurra reported that his father said, “A man said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I was going to slaughter a sheep and then I felt sorry for it (or ‘sorry for the sheep I was going to slaughter’).’ He said twice, ‘Since you showed mercy to the sheep, Allah will show mercy to you.'”

(Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 373)

Paradise won’t be granted by good deeds alone but mercy by Allah alone.

There is none whose deeds alone would entitle him to get into Paradise. It was said to him: And, Allah’s Messenger, not even you? Thereupon he said: Not even I, but that my Lord wraps me in Mercy.

(Sahih Muslim 2816 c)

So always try your best to be merciful toward animals as long as they are not harmful to you. Give the birds water when the weather has become hot, if there is a starving animal, give it the foods, as you would to poor people, with seeking nothing but Allah’s pleasure, and feeling hopeful of being granted into Paradise by the Most Merciful.

Sharpen your knife before slaughtering, as part of Ihsan.

We are also commanded to spare the suffering that animals face when sacrificed, by sharpening knives

“Indeed Allah has decreed Ihsan in everything. So when you kill, then do the killing well, and when you slaughter, then do the slaughtering well. Let one of you sharpen his blade, and let him comfort his animal (before slaughtering).”

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1409)

The Thristy Dog:

Prophet peace be upon him mentioned regarding a thirsty dog

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “While a man was walking he felt thirsty and went down a well and drank water from it. On coming out of it, he saw a dog panting and eating mud because of excessive thirst. The man said, ‘This (dog) is suffering from the same problem as that of mine. So he (went down the well), filled his shoe with water, caught hold of it with his teeth and climbed up, and watered the dog. Allah thanked him for his (good) deed and forgave him.”

The people asked, “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! Is there a reward for us in serving (the) animals?” He replied, “Yes, there is a reward for serving any animate.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari 2363)

In another hadith:

There was a dog moving around a well whom thirst would have killed. Suddenly a prostitute from the prostitutes of Bani Isra’il happened to see it and she drew water in her shoe and made it drink, and she was pardoned because of this.

(Sahih Muslim 2245 b)

How Merciful and Thankful is Allah! He just forgave the prostitute, despite that it is one of the worst and immoral sins. One should never despair Allah’s mercy, even if he has sinned so much. But one still should be merciful toward Allah’s creatures, people, and animals.

Not related to the topic but important note:

“Take on only as much as you can do of good deeds, for the best of deeds is that which is done consistently, even if it is little.”

(Ibn Majah 4240)

Killing animals unjustly:

To kill animals for no reason, even if it is an ant, is a major sin, and such animals will complain to Allah on Day of Judgment. He will ask the person responsible for it.

Prophet peace be upon him said:

“There is no person who kills a small bird or anything larger, for no just reason, but Allah will ask him about it.”

It was said, “O Messenger of Allah, what is a just cause?” The Prophet said, “A just cause is that you slaughter it for food, but you should not cut off its head and throw it aside.”

(Sunan an-Nasa’i 4445)

“I heard Sharid say: ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah say: Whoever kills a small bird for no reason, it will beseech Allah on the Day of Resurrection saying: O Lord, so and so killed me for no reason. And he did not kill me for any beneficial purpose.”‘

(Sunan an-Nasa’i 4446)

Prophet peace be upon him said that a woman went to Hellfire for killing a cat.

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “A woman entered the (Hell) Fire because of a cat which she had tied, neither giving it food nor setting it free to eat from the vermin of the earth. “

(Sahih al-Bukhari 3318)

Another narration

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) further said, (Allah knows better) Allah said (to the woman), ‘You neither fed it nor watered when you locked it up, nor did you set it free to eat the insects of the earth.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari 2365)

Planting tree for the animals:

Prophet peace be upon him said regarding planting tree:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “There is none amongst the Muslims who plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it but is regarded as a charitable gift for him.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari 2320)

Being patient with animals and comforting them:

Even if our animals are behaving toward us badly, we should still be patient with them, and be gentle with them. When Hazrat Aisha once beat a camel for its behavior, Prophet peace be upon him said to her:

You must be gentle. Verily, gentleness is not in anything except that it beautifies it, and it is not removed from anything except that it disgraces it.

(Musnad Aḥmad 24417)

And Prophet peace be upon him comforted a camel which wept and flowed tears, when it saw him, due to its owner’s treatment toward it.

He (The Prophet peace be upon him) entered the garden of a man from the Ansar(Helpers). All of a sudden when a Camel saw the Prophet (ﷺ) it wept tenderly producing yearning sound and it eyes flowed. The Prophet (ﷺ) came to it and wiped the temple of its head. So it kept silent. He then said “Who is the master of this Camel? Whose Camel is this? A young man from the Ansar came and said “This is mine, Apostle of Allaah(ﷺ).” He said “Don’t you fear Allaah about this beast which Allaah has given in your possession. It has complained to me that you keep it hungry and load it heavily which fatigues it.”

(Sunan Abi Dawud 2549)

And he also defended a sparrow, as its children were taken away. He ordered the people who did this to give them back, the Companions said:

we saw a Hummarah with two young ones. We took the young ones. The Hummarah came and began to spread out its wings. Then the prophet (May peace be upon him) came and said: who has pained this young by the loss of her young? Give her young ones back to her.

(Sunan Abi Dawud 5268)

He also defended ants and told a story about a Prophet (peace be upon him)

We also saw an ant-hill which we had burned. He asked: Who has burned this? We replied: we have. He said: it is not fitting that anyone but the lord of the fire should punish with fire.

(Sunan Abi Dawud 5268)

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Once while a prophet amongst the prophets was taking a rest underneath a tree, an ant bit him. He, therefore, ordered that his luggage be taken away from underneath that tree and then ordered that the dwelling place of the ants should be set on fire. Allah sent him a revelation:– “Wouldn’t it have been sufficient to burn a single ant?

(Sahih al-Bukhari 3319)

He also forbade branding animal’s face

Jabir reported the Prophet (ﷺ) as saying when an ass which had been branded on its face passed him. Did it not reach you that I cursed him who branded the animals on their faces or struck them on their faces. So he prohibited it.

(Sunan Abi Dawud 2564)

To take animals as a sport for fun, such as shooting them as targets is also forbidden

it was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far said: “The Messenger of Allah passed by some people who were shooting arrows at a ram. He denounced that and said: ‘Do not disfigure animals (by using them as targets).” (Sahih)

(Sunan an-Nasa’i 4440)

Hazrat Umar, 2nd caliph of Islamic state actually discouraged eating meats:

Even though Allah has made meats lawful, we should not eat them too much. It is reported that Hazrat Umar said:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “Beware of meat. It has addictiveness like the addictiveness of wine.”

(Imam Malik’s Al-Muewetta 1710)

But we should never regard meats as haram, this is very against Allah’s religion, rather we try to not make meats as our daily diet, just that we are allowed to eat meat someday.

Forbidden animals to kill, and other allowed to be killed:

Prophet peace be upon him has forbidden killing these animals:

Frogs (Sunan Abi Dawud 5269)

  1. Hoopoes
  2. sparrow-hawks
  3. bees
  4. ants

(Sunan Abi Dawud 5267)

He allowed these animals to be killed due to the dangers of them, even in Masjid-e-Haram.

  1. Scorpions,
  2. Rats,
  3. Rabid dogs
  4. Crows
  5. Kites

(Sahih al-Bukhari 3315)

Animals mentioned in Quran:

Six surahs of Quran are named after animals

  1. Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
  2. Surah Al-Anaam (The Cattle)
  3. Surah Al-Nahl (The Bees)
  4. Surah Al-Naml (The Ants)
  5. Surah Al-Ankabut (The Spider)
  6. Surah Al-Fil (The Elephant)

Animals in verses:

  1. Dog (Surah Al Kahf 18:18, 22, and Al-Araf 7:176)

2. Cow (Surah Al-Baqarah 67 to 71, Surah Yusuf 43, 46)

3. Camel (Al A’raf 7:73, one of the miracles that Allah sent to a nation was His She-Camel, which was killed by Thamud due to their arrogance)

4. Cattle (Surah Al-Baraqah 171)

5. Horse, mule, and donkey (Surah An-Nahl 8)

6. Elephant (Surah Al-Fil 1)

7. Sheep (Surah Baqarah 171)

8. Ant (Surah An-Naml 18)

9. Spider (Surah Al-Ankabut 41)

10. Hoopoe (Surah An-Naml 20 and 22)

11. Bird (Surah Imran 49)

12. Goat (Surah Al An’am 143)

13. Bee (Surah Nahl 68)

14. Frog (Surah Al-Araf 133)

15. Ewe (female sheep), (Surah Sad 38:23)

16. Crow (Surah Al-Ma’idah 31)

17. Wolf (Surah Yusuf 12:13)

18. Snake (Surah Taha 20)

19. Lion (Surah Al-Muddaththir 51)

20. Lice (Surah Al-A’raf 133)

21. Moth (Surah Al-Qari’ah 4)

22. Mosquito (Surah Baqarah 26)

23. Ape (Surah Al Baqarah 65)

24. Fish (Surah Al-Kahf 61)

25. Pig (Surah Al-Ma’idah 60)

26. Quail (Surah Al-Baqarah 57)

27. Locust (Surah Al-A’raf 133)

28. Fly (Surah Al-Hajj 73)

Forbidden meats to eat:

Any meats obtained from slaughtered animals that Bismillah was not mentioned intentionally before slaughtering it. Allah has described it as grave disobedience:

وَلَا تَأۡكُلُواْ مِمَّا لَمۡ يُذۡكَرِ ٱسۡمُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡهِ وَإِنَّهُۥ لَفِسۡقٌۗ

“And do not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has not been mentioned, for indeed, it is grave disobedience” Surah 6:121

Even though, the meat is still halal if the slaughterman forgot to say bismillah by mistake, according to scholars among Salaf, such as Hazrat Ibn Abbas, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifah (may Allah be pleased with them)

To eat pork (Quran 16:115)

Meats dedicated to other than Allah, (false deities) are not allowed (Quran 16:115)

Eating meats from carrion (dead meats) is not allowed (Quran 16:115)

Donkey meat is not allowed (Sahih Bukhari 4219)

Meat from animals with fangs (cats, dogs, lion etc) are not allowed (Sahih Bukhari 5530)

It is not allowed to eat meats from animals slaughtered by kafirs beside Christians and Jews.

Allah says regarding meats from Christians and Jews

ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتُۖ وَطَعَامُ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ حِلٌّ لَّكُمۡ

“This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given Scripture is lawful for you” Surah 5:5

But they need to say bismillah first, and then cut its throat and oesophagus, and let blood to flow, so the meat becomes halal. if the slaughterman strangles or kills the animal with electric shock or through drowning, then it is not allowed to eat such meat.

Meats of animal died from strangling, or violent blow, or head-long fall or by goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten except one slaughter before its death, and those which are sacrificed on a stone altar, are not allowed (Surah Maida 5:3), it is also not allowed to eat blood.

It is not allowed to eat birds that have talon (eagles, owls, and hawks, etc) (Sunan Abi Dawud 3805)

Slaughtering animals:

These are conditions of slaughtering animals:

1. The slaughterman must be Muslim, or Jew/Christian

2. The slaughtering must be submitted to Allah alone. Allah says in Surah Kawthar

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَٱنۡحَرۡ

So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone]

3. If the slaughterman is Muslim, then his aqeedah must be correct (that means he believes in the Oneness of Allah, calls to Him alone, not praying to a saint, seeking help from dead righteous people, etc), and that he prays 5 times. Abandoning salat is considered as kufr as reported in Sunan Abi Dawud 4678

4. He should say Bismillah, it is sunnah to say tabkir (Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1521)

5. The knife must be sharpened so that the animal gets a comfortable death.

6. The throat and esophagus must be cut, but not the spinal cord so that the blood gets out until the animal has died completely.

Good manner of slaughtering:

The animal should not be slaughtered in front of other animals, as this is psychological torture.

The knife should be hidden from the animal until slaughtered.

The animal should be in a comfortable place.

It is good to start slaughter with the right hand, but not obligatory.

it is desirable to make the animal face Qibla (Ibn Majah 3121)